Jump to content


Photo

Learning Japanese


  • Please log in to reply
18 replies to this topic

#1 mollipen

mollipen

    If this is all that life has to offer me, then I can do without.

  • Owner
  • 10,402 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Los Angeles, CA
  • Occupation:Princess in training
  • brown
  • Xbox Live: pikoeri

Posted 12 June 2003 - 03:58 PM

Transfer of Spook's epic posting from momabbs

I've been typing out notes as I study Japanese for my upcoming trip. These don't cover everything, but should make a good supplement for those studying from another book. If you've got notes of your own, by all means add them!

These notes were typed in a fixed-width font and should be viewed the same way. Windows users can copy and paste the text into Notepad.

Characters:
Anil Sharma-san - He is a second-year exchange student from India.
Lisa Brown-san - She is a second-year exchange student from England.
Yamashita-san - He is a second year college student and Japan native.
Tanaka-san - She is a second-year college student and Japan native.
Suzuki-san - He is a third-year college student, assistant to Kimura-sensei, and a Japan native.
Kimura-sensei - He is a 50-year-old college professor and Japan native.

Parts of speech
---------------
noun = meeshi
verb = dooshi
adjective = keeyooshi
adverb = fukushi
particle = jooshi
M J F M J D
Watashi wa ashita Tookyoo e ikimasu.
M J K
Nihongo wa omoshiroi.

Mora
----
Verbal beat = mora
Mora separated by dashes:
To-o-kyo-o
ki-t-te
ri-n-go

Predicates
----------
Verbs:
plain: iku, ikanai, itta, ikanakatta
polite: ikimasu, ikimasen, ikimashita, ikimasen deshita
Adjectives:
plain: omoshiroi, omoshiroku nai, omoshirokatta, omoshiroku nakatta
polite: omoshiroi desu, omoshiroku arimasen, omoshirokatta desu, omoshiroku arimasen deshita
na Adjectives:
plain: genki da, genki ja nai, genki datta, genki ja nakatta
polite: genki desu, genki ja arimasen, genki deshita, genki ja arimasen deshita
Nouns:
plain: Yamada-san da, Yamada-san ja nai, Yamada-san datta, Yamada-san ja nakatta
polite: Yamada-san deshita, Yamada-san ja arimasen, Yamada-san deshita, Yamada-san ja arimasen deshita

Aizuchi
-------
Listening signals = aizuchi
It is important to continually affirm that you are listening in response to almost every phrase during a conversation.
Words to affirm understanding: hai, ee, un.
Grunts or nods or a combination of all these will work.
Soo desu ne: you agree.
Soo desu ka (falling intonation): you weren't aware of a fact but accept it.
Soo desu ka (rising intonation): implies disbelief.

~mashoo and ~masen ka
---------------------
Append "~mashoo" to a verb to propose something.
"Issho ni ikimashoo?"
Append "~masen ka" to a verb to make an invitation.
"Issho ni ikimasen ka?"

Counters for Things
-------------------
hitotsu - 1
futatsu - 2
mittsu - 3
yottsu - 4
itsutsu - 5
muttsu - 6
nanatsu - 7
yattsu - 8
kokonotsu - 9
too - 10
juuichi - 11
juuni - 12...
After 10, revert to normal numbers.
"Ikutsu" means "how many?"

Counters for People
-------------------
hitori - 1
futari - 2
san-nin - 3
yon-nin - 4...
After 2, revert to normal numbers with "~nin" appended.
"Nan-nin" means "how many (people)?

Relative Locations
------------------
~ no mae - in front of
~ no ue - upon
~ no naka - inside
~ no hidari - to the left of
~ no migi - to the right of
~ no tonari - next to
~ no chikaku - near
~ no ushiro - behind
~ no shita - under
~ no soto - outside
Tsukue no shita ni neko ga imasu. [There's a cat under the desk.]

~ kara ~ (Because) Connective Particle
--------------------------------------
In the form {sentence 1} kara {sentence 2}, the first sentence gives the reason for the second.
Tanaka-san ga kimashita kara, issho ni hirugohan o tabemashita. [Because Tanaka-san came, I had lunch with her.]
The reason and result can be switched, however.
Chotto matte kudasai. Suzuki-san ni denwa shimasu kara. [Please wait a moment. I'm going to call Suzuki-san.]
When used at the end of a lone sentence, kara indicates that the speaker is saying something that should be obvious to the listener.
Erebeetaa no sugu mae desu kara. [It's right in front of the elevator.]

~ nara ~ (If You Mean)
----------------------
nara follows a noun and indicates the noun is taken up for further comment, similar to "if you mean X".
A: Ashita, issho ni Tookyoo ni ikimasen ka? [Won't you come with me to Tokyo tomorrow?]
B: Ashita nara ii desu. Ashita wa jugyoo ga arimasen kara. [If you mean tomorrow, it's OK, because tomorrow there's no class.]
A: Sentakuki wa doko ni arimasu ka? [Where's the washing machine?]
B: Sentakuki nara yon-kai ni arimasu yo. [If it's the washing machine you want, it's on the 4th floor.]
A: Pen, arimasu ka? [Do you have a pen?]
B: Iie, enpitsu nara arimasu. [No, but if you want a pencil, I have one.]

Verb Inflection Patterns
------------------------
There are three inflection patterns for Japanese verbs:
Group I: end in -u
Group II: end in -eru or -iru
Group III: kuru and suru (the only two verbs that fall into this group)
There are several forms for verbs:
-ru/-u: plain non-past positive form
-te/-de: used to string together sequences of verbs
-ta: plain past positive form
-masu: polite form
-ru/-u -te/de -ta -masu
Group I
-ku/-gu kiku kiite kiita kikimasu
iku itte* itta* ikimasu
isogu isoide isoida isogimasu
-mu/-bu/-nu nomu nonde nonda nomimasu
yobu yonde yonda yobimasu
shinu shinde shinda shinimasu
-su hanasu hanashite hanashita hanashimasu
-u kau katte katta kaimasu
-ru kaeru** kaette kaetta kaerimasu
-tsu matsu matte matta machimasu
Group II
-eru/-iru taberu tabete tabeta tabemasu
miru mite mita mimasu
Group III
kuru kite kita kimasu
suru shite shita shimasu
* Some verbs are irregular!
** Not all verbs which end in -eru or -iru fall into Group II!

kudasai - Expressions of Request
--------------------------------
"kudasai" is similar to "please"; it is used to make requests.
Add "kudasai" to a verb's -te form to request that someone do something:
Matte kudasai. Ashita kitte kudasai. Douzo tabete kudasai.
Add "o kudasai" to a noun to request a thing.
Mizu o kudasai. Tegami o kudasai. Kore o kudasai.

~n desu - Explanations
----------------------
Sentences ending in ~n desu give or request an explanation or reason.
(A asks B for help reading kanji.)
A: Kono kanji nan te yomu n desu ka?
B: Takyuubin.
(A sees B walking down the street with a letter in her hand.)
A: Yuubinkyoku he iku n desu ka?
B: Ee. Tomodachi ni tegami o dasu n desu.
Contrast the above conversation with this one:
(A sees B walking down the street, without a letter in hand.)
A: Yuubinkyoku he ikimasu ka?
B: Ee. Ikimasu.
Note the absence of "n desu" in the second conversation. "n desu" is used in the first conversation because A is asking for an explanation for the letter, and B is providing one. In the second conversation, it is not clear where B is headed, so A simply asks if B is headed to the post office or not.
With nouns or "na" adjectives, add "na" before "n desu":
Eigo na n desu.
Yuumei na n desu.
Be careful not to confuse "na n desu" with "nan (what)"!
Eigo na n desu. [It's in English.]
Eigo de nan teiu n desu ka? [How do you say it in English?]
Although it is spoken as "n desu", in written sentences it appears as "no desu".

Adjectives
----------
There are two types of Japanese adjectives:
Adjectives: end in -i
omoi nimotsu, yasui kamera
"na" Adjectives: use "na" when modifying a noun
shinsetsu na hito, shizuka na heya

#2 mollipen

mollipen

    If this is all that life has to offer me, then I can do without.

  • Owner
  • 10,402 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Los Angeles, CA
  • Occupation:Princess in training
  • brown
  • Xbox Live: pikoeri

Posted 12 June 2003 - 04:02 PM

Spook's postings, part two

Adjective/Noun Inflection Patterns
----------------------------------
Adjectives are inflected similar to verbs, "na" adjectives are inflected similar to nouns.
non-past positive non-past negative past positive past negative
Adjectives
plain yasui yasuku nai yasukatta yasuku nakatta
polite yasui desu yasuku arimasen yasukatta desu yasuku arimasen deshita
(yasuku nai desu) (yasuku nakatta desu)
"na" Adjectives
plain benri da benri ja nai benri datta benri ja nakatta
polite benri desu benri ja arimasen benri deshita benri ja arimasen deshita
(benri ja nai desu) (benri ja nakatta desu)
Nouns
plain hon da hon ja nai hon datta hon ja nakatta
polite hon desu hon ja arimasen hon deshita hon ja arimasen deshita
(hon ja nai desu) (hon ja nakatta desu)
Some adjectives, such as "kirei" and "yuumei", are irregular! Although they end in -i, they are actually na adjectives.

-tai (Want to)
--------------
Append -tai to a verb's base to indicate that you want to do something. A verb's base is the -masu form with "masu" removed.
non-past positive non-past negative past positive past negative
plain nomitai nomitaku nai nomitakatta nomitaku nakatta
polite nomitai desu nomitaku arimasen nomitakatta desu nomitaku arimasen deshita
(nomitaku nai desu) (nomitaku nakatta desu)

~ga~/~keredo~/~kedo~ Connective Particle
-------------------------------------
To express the idea of {Sentence 1} but {Sentence 2}, connect the statements with the "ga"/"keredo"/"kedo" connective particle:
Kore wa chiisai desu ga, omoi desu.
Benkyou shimashita keredo, wakarimasen.
To foreshadow that you are about to make an offer or request, give an explanation using "n desu", then add "kedo" or "ga". Pause before making the offer or request, or leave it unsaid entirely, to be inferred from the explanation.
Ashita Tsukuba San he iku n desu kedo... (Issho ni iku?)
Ashita kyuushin na n desu ga... (Hoka no hi ni kite kudasai.)

Time and Date
-------------
~ji: hour
~fun: minute
~gatsu: month
~nichi: day of the month
~youbi: day of the week
To ask the time, add "nan" before the appropriate counter above: nanji, nanbun, nangatsu, nannichi, nanyoubi
To give a time that is half-past the hour, add "han" to the hour:
Sanjihan ni kaerimasu. [We go home at 3:30.]
Append the structure particle "ni" after time expressions. Note the expressions of relative time such as "kyou", "ashita", etc. never take "ni".
Kinyoubi ni aimashou. [Let's meet on Friday.]
Rokugatsu nijuusannichi ni kite kudasai. [Please come on June 23.]
Kurasu wa sanjihan ni owarimasu. [Our class will finish at 3:30.]
Ashita yarimasu. [I'll do it tomorrow.]

Telephone Numbers
-----------------
(0298) 52-3181
The first part is the area code. The second and third parts are the user's number.
Each number can be read separately, linking the parts with "no":
Zero nii kyuu hachi no go nii no san ichi hachi ichi
Or, the second part can be read as a decimal number:
Zero nii kyuu hachi no gojyuuni no san ichi hachi ichi
Individual numbers within a phone number are read as follows:
1: ichi
2: nii [not "ni"]
3: san
4: yon
5: gou [not "go"]
6: roku
7: nana
8: hachi
9: kyuu
0: zero/rei*
Zero can also be read as "maru" when placed between numbers or at the end.
"Naisen" indicates an extension. To read "extension 105":
~ naisen no ichi maru gou

wa and mo Discourse Particles
-----------------------------
When you want to make something the topic of conversation, place it at the beginning of a sentence, followed by "wa".
Watashi wa gakusee desu. [As for me, I'm a student.]
"Mo" fills the same function as "wa", except that it means "also".
Sharuma-san mo gakusee desu. [As for Sharma-san, he's also a student.]
Once a topic of conversation has been established, the noun and "wa" can be dropped from further sentences.
Watashi wa ryugakusee desu. (Watashi wa) Amerikajin desu. [As for me, I'm a foreign student. (I'm) an American.]
"Wa" and "mo" replace a "ga" or "o" (and occasionally, "ni") structure particle that would normally mark a word:
Tanaka-san ga kitte o kaimashita. [Tanaka-san bought stamps.]
Tanaka-san wa kitte o kaimashita. [As for Tanaka-san, he bought stamps.]
Kitte wa Tanaka-san ga kaimashita. [As for the stamps, Tanaka-san bought them.]
Hagaki o kaimashita ka? [Did you buy postcards?]
Hagaki mo kaimashita ka? [As for postcards, did you buy them, too?]
"Wa" and "mo" do *not* replace other structure particles ("de", "to", etc.):
Kinoo Sharuma-san ga Buraun-san to Tookyoo ni ikimashita. [Sharma-san went to Tokyo with Brown-san yesterday.]
Tookyoo ni wa kinoo Sharuma-san ga Buraun-san to ikimashita. [As for going to Tokyo, Sharma-san went there with Brown-san yesterday.]
Buraun-san to wa kinoo Sharuma-san ga Tookyoo ni ikimashita. [As for going with Brown-san, Sharma-san went to Tokyo with her yesterday.]
Kinoo wa Sharuma-san ga Buraun-san to Tookyoo ni ikimashita. [As for yesterday, Sharma-san went to Tokyo with Brown-san.]

-te Form of Adjectives
----------------------
To get the -te form of a regular adjective, replace the "-i" suffix with "-kute":
omoshiroi, omoshirokute, furui, furukute, takai, takakute
To get the -te form of a "na" adjective, replace "da" with "de":
shinsetsu da, shinsetsu de, benri da, benri de

Connecting Adjective and Noun Sentences
---------------------------------------
When two adjectives are used to describe some thing or person, they can be combined into one sentence by changing the first adjective into its "-te" form.
A: Watashi no jisho wa furui desu. [My dictionary is old.]
A: Watashi no jisho wa chiisai desu. [My dictionary is small.]
A: Watashi no jisho wa furukute, chiisai desu. [My dictionary is old and small.]
A: Tanaka-san wa shinsetsu da. [Ms. Tanaka is helpful.]
A: Tanaka-san wa yasashii. [Ms. Tanaka is kind.]
A: Tanaka-san wa shinsetsu de, yasashii desu. [Ms. Tanaka is helpful and kind.]
If the two adjectives express a contrast, they are linked by "kedo" or "ga" instead:
A: Kono hon wa takai desu ga, omoshiroi desu. [This book is expensive, but interesting.]
A: Watashi no apatto wa kirei desu ga, urusai desu. [My apartment is clean, but noisy.]
Noun sentences can be connected with the "-te" form as well:
A: Kimura-sensee wa kono daigaku no sensei de, watashi no shidoukyoukan da. [Kimura-sensee is a teacher at this university, and my academic adviser.]

Quotations
----------
The particle "to" indicates the preceding words are a quotation or paraphrase:
A: Yamada-san wa "San-ji ni ikimasu." to iimashita. [Yamada-san said, "I will be there at 3."]
The phrase being repeated can either be a direct quotation, or a paraphrase. When paraphrasing:
Polite forms are changed to plain forms:
A: Yamada-san wa "San-ji ni ikimasu." to itte imasu. [Yamada-san says, "I will be there at 3."]
A: Yamada-san wa san-ji ni kuru to itte imasu. [Yamada-san says that he'll come at 3.]
The tense of the quotation should remain the same (unlike in English):
A: Yamada-san wa san-ji ni kuru to iimashita. [Yamada-san said that he'd come at 3.]
The quotation should be rephrased from the speaker's perspective:
A: Anata no tokoro ni ikimasu. [(I'll) go to your place.]
B: Watashi no tokoro ni kuru to itte imasu. [(She) says she'll come to my place.]
"-tte" can be substituted for "to itte imasu" in casual speech:
A: Yamada-san wa san-ji ni kurutte. [Yamada-san says he'll come at 3.]
"Iimasu" should be used instead of "to itte imasu" or "to iimashita" when quoting words that are spoken habitually:
A: Nihonjin wa shokuji no toki "itadakimasu" to iimasu. [The Japanese say "itadakimasu" at a meal.]

~ node ~ (Because) Connective Particle
--------------------------------------
Similar to "~ kara ~", in the form "{sentence 1} node {sentence 2}", the first sentence gives the reason for the second:
A: Atama ga itakata node, byouin e ikimashita. [I went to the hospital because I had a headache.]
The predicate preceding "node" should usually be in the polite form, whereas the predicate preceding "kara" can be plain or polite.
"Kara" can be immediately followed by "desu", whereas "node" cannot:
A: Doushite shukudai o shimasen deshita ka? [Why didn't you do the homework?]
B: Atama ga itakata kara desu. [Because I had a headache.]
"Node" has a formal and objective ring, whereas "kara" sounds casual and subjective.
When the sentence preceding "node" is a non-past positive noun sentence, "da" changes to "na":
A: Ashita wa yasumi na node, eiga ni ikimasu. [Tomorrow is my day off, so I'll go to the movies.]
Likewise, when the sentence preceding "node" is a "na" adjective, "da" changes to "na":
A: Kono heya wa shizuka na node, benkyo shimashita. [Because this room is quiet, I studied here.]

Using Adjectives as Adverbs
---------------------------
To use an adjective as an adverb, change the "-i" to into "ku":
Doctor: Kuchi o ookiku akete kudasai. [Please open your mouth wide.]
To use a "na" adjective as an adverb, change "da" into "ni":
Teacher: Shizuka ni benkyou shite kudasai. [Please study quietly.]

Irregular Honorifics
--------------------
Keego (honorific forms) can be used when talking to or about someone of higher social status, or someone the speaker does not know very well.
There are three types of honorific forms: irregular honorifics, regular honorifics, and passive honorifics.
Below are some verbs with irregular honorific forms:
verb plain honorific polite honorific
iru [to stay] irassharu* irasshaimasu
iku [to go] irassharu* irasshaimasu
kuru [to come] irassharu* irasshaimasu
taberu [to eat] meshiagaru* meshiagarimasu
nomu [to drink] meshiagaru* meshiagarimasu
iu [to say] ossharu osshaimasu
miru [to see] goran ni naru goran ni narimasu
suru [to do] nasaru nasaimasu
*Separate verbs can share the same honorific form.
A: Itsu Nihon ni irasshaimashita ka? [When did you come to Japan?]
B: Sengetsu kimashita. [I came last month.]
A: Ashita Kyoto ni irasshaimasu ka? [Will you go to Kyoto tomorrow?]
B: Hai, ikimasu. [Yes, I'll go.]
A: Douzo, meshiagatte kudasai. [Please eat.]
A: Hayashi-san wa Yokohama ni sunde irasshaimasu. [Hayashi-san lives in Yokohama.]
"Go" can optionally be added before some verbal nouns, and "o" before some others, for extra formality:
A: Itsu go kekon nasaimasu ka? [When will you get married?]
B: Rainen kekon shimasu. [I'll get married next year.]
Some verbal nouns that can take "go": kekon suru, setsumei suru, soudan suru, renraku suru
Some verbal nouns that can take "o": denwa suru, sentaku suru, souji suru, ryouri suru
Some verbal nouns that take neither "go" nor "o": unten suru, tenisu suru

"Dake" (Only)
-------------
"Dake" is used to indicate a limit (just, only):
Patient: Shatsu dake o negimashita. [I took off only my shirt.]
A: Kitte wa juu-mai dake kaimashita. [I bought just 10 stamps.]
A: Yamada-san dake ga kesseki shite imasu. [Only Yamada-san is absent.]
The "o" and "ga" particles are often omitted in casual speech.

Modifying Nouns
---------------
Adjectives or nouns can be used to modify nouns, describing the noun they precede in more detail.
Normal adjectives use their "-i" form when modifying nouns:
A: Omoshiroi zashi desu. [It's an interesting magazine.]
"Na" adjectives take the form "{adjective} na {noun}" when modifying nouns:
A: Majime na gakusei desu. [He's a serious student.]
Nouns can modify other nouns with the form "{noun} no {noun}":
A: Nihongo no sensei desu. [He's a Japanese teacher.]
"Donna" (what kind of) can be used as a noun modifier to ask about a noun's characteristics:
A: Tanaka-san wa donna hito desu ka? [What kind of persion is Tanaka-san?]
B: Kawaii no hito desu. [She's a charming person.]

Color Words
-----------
Japanese color words have two types: nouns and adjectives.
Words like "midori" (green) and "murasaki" (purple) are nouns and should be used accordingly:
A: Midori no seetaa desu. [It's a green sweater.]
Words like "shiroi" (white) and "akai" (red) are "-i" adjectives:
A: Akai no seetaa desu. [It's a red sweater.]
The stem (the form minus the final "-i") of adjective color words is sometimes used as a noun:
A: Aka no seetaa desu. [It's a sweater of red color.]
Only the noun form should be used in questions and answers regarding the color of something:
A: Donna iro desu ka? [What color is it?]
B: Shiro desu. [It's white.]

#3 mollipen

mollipen

    If this is all that life has to offer me, then I can do without.

  • Owner
  • 10,402 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Los Angeles, CA
  • Occupation:Princess in training
  • brown
  • Xbox Live: pikoeri

Posted 12 June 2003 - 04:05 PM

Spook's posting, part three

"No" (One)
----------
"No" can be used in place of a noun that is understood from the context:
A: Terebi, arimasu ka? [Do you own a TV?]
B: Ee, senshuu atarashii no o kaimashita. [Yes, I bought a new one last week.]
A: Kutsu, kaimashita ka? [Did you buy shoes?]
B: Ee, kirei na no kaimashita. [Yes, I bought some beautiful ones.]
A: Kore wa Tanaka-san no hon desu ka? [Is this Tanaka-san's book?]
B: Iie, Yamada-san no desu. [No, it's Yamada-san's.]

Comparison
----------
To compare two things, use either the form "{noun a} no hou ga {noun b} yori {predicate}" or the form "{noun b} yori {noun a} no hou ga {predicate}". Both mean A is more {predicate} than B:
A: Erebetaa no hou ga kaidan yori benri desu. [The elevator is more convenient than the stairs.]
A: Kaidan yori erebetaa no hou ga benri desu. [The elevator is more convenient than the stairs.]
The alternative that the noun "hou" appears next to is the choice between those offered.
To make an alternative the topic of the sentence, replace "no hou ga" with "wa":
A: Erebetaa wa kaidan yori benri desu. [The elevator is more convenient than the stairs.]
To compare three or more items, use the form "{group name} no naka de, {noun} ga ichiban {predicate}":
A: Kazoku no naka de, haha ga ichiban isogashii desu. [Mother is the busiest person in my family.]
When comparing three or more items, "{noun} to {noun} to {noun}" can be used in place of the group name:
A: Hiragana to katakana to kanji de, kanji ga ichiban omoshiroi. [Among hiragana, katakana, and kanji, kanji are the most interesting.]
"Uchi de" can be used in place of "naka de":
A: Juusu to ocha to koohii no uchi de, dore ga ichiban nomitai desu ka? [Of juice, tea, and coffee, which do you want to drink most?]

Comparative Questions
---------------------
To ask about a choice of alternatives, use the form "{noun a} to {noun b} to, dochira no hou ga {predicate}?":
A: Kono seetaa to ano seetaa to, dochira no hou ga yasui desu ka? [Which is cheaper, this sweater or that one?]
B: Kono seetaa no hou ga yasui desu. [This sweater is cheaper.]
When the chosen alternative consists of "{adjective} no", "{adjective} hou" is usually used instead of "{adjective} no no hou":
A: Ooki no to chisai no to, dochira ga ii desu ka? [Which would you like, the big one or the little one?]
B: Chisai hou ga ii desu. [I'd like the little one.]
To ask about a range of alternatives, use the form "{group name} no naka de, {question word} ga ichiban {predicate}?":
A: Kono naka de, dore ga ichiban yasui desu ka? [Which is the cheapest among these?]
B: Sore ga ichiban yasui desu. [That one is the cheapest.]
When asking about three or more alternatives, "dochira" cannot be used as a question word, as it indicates a choice between only two alternatives. Appropriate question words would include "dore", "nani", "dare", "doko", "itsu", etc.
"Dore" (which?) should be used when the items being compared are specific or countable. "Nani" (what?) should be used when there are an unlimited number of options. For example, while there are a finite number of kinds of alcoholic, drinks, there are countless kinds of Japanese dishes:
A: Osake no naka de, dore ga ichiban tsuyoi desu ka? [Which is the strongest alcoholic drink?]
A: Nihon no tabemono de, nani ga ichiban oishii desu ka? [What is the most delicious Japanese dish?]

Contrastive Use of "Wa" Discourse Particle
------------------------------------------
The discourse particle "wa" can be used to contrast two subjects:
A: Tanaka-san wa kaimashita ga, Suzuki-san wa kaimasen deshita. [Tanaka-san bought something, but Suzuki-san didn't.]
A: Chikin wa tabemasu ga, pooku wa tabemasen. [I eat chicken, but I don't eat pork.]
A: Denwa wa, Tanaka-san wa kakemashita ga, Suzuki-san wa kakemasen deshita. [I phoned Tanaka-san, but not Suzuki-san.]

Describing Characteristics
--------------------------
Subjects can be described in terms of a single aspect:
A: Kono seetaa wa iro ga ii desu. [As for this sweater, the color is nice.]
A: Ano hito wa se ga takai. [As for that person, his stature is tall.]
The "wa" particle can be used to express a contrast between aspects. To emphasize the second item, use "ga" rather than "wa":
A: Kono seetaa wa iro wa ii kedo, dezain ga warui. [As for this sweater, the color is good, but the design is bad.]
A: Nihongo wa, hiragana wa yasashii kedo, kanji ga muzukashii desu. [In Japanese, hiragana are easy, but kanji are hard.]
The contrasting item(s) can also be left unsaid. Commenting on a positive aspect using the "wa" particle implies that there is also something negative, while commenting on a negative aspect implies that there is also something positive:
A: Kono seetaa wa iro wa ii kedo... [This sweater is a nice color, but...]
A: Kono hon wa nedan wa takai kedo... [This book's price is high, but...]

Asking for Similar Items
------------------------
When shopping for clothing, if you see something that's the right size but the wrong color or vice versa, you can ask for a slightly different color with the form "kono {attribute} de {attribute} no, arimasu ka?":
A: Kono iro de L no, arimasu ka? [Is there an L size in this color?]
A: Kono dezain de mou sukoshi ookii no, arimasen ka? [Do you have this design in a slightly bigger size?]

Asking for Advice
-----------------
To ask for advice on a purchase, you can use the form "{noun} wa watashi ni wa {adjective} deshou ka?":
A: Kore, watashi ni wa, hade deshou ka? [Is this too loud for me? {formal}]
A: Kono LL-te iu no wa, boku ni wa ookii ka na? [Is this size they call LL too big for me, I wonder? {masculine}]
A: Kono iro, watashi ni wa chotto jimi kashira? [Is this color a little too subdued for me, I wonder? {feminine}]

Declining Politely
------------------
When you are looking at something in a store and an attendant asks if you like it, or offers to help you, you can either ask them for advice or decline politely:
Attendant: Ikaga desu ka? [How do you like it?]
Customer: Ie. Chotto miteiru dake desu kara. [No thank you, I'm just looking.]
When an attendant suggests something you don't like, you can express disagreement with "~ no hou ga ii n desu kedo":
Attendant: Ikaga de gozaimasu ka? [How do you like it? {formal}]
Customer: Uun... {falling intonation} Mou chotto ookii hou ga ii n desu kedo. [Hmm... I prefer a slightly bigger size.]
You can also use "~ chotto..." in a puzzled manner:
Attendant: Kochira nado, saikin ryuukou no dezain desu ga. [This design is in fashion at the moment.]
Customer: Sou desu ne. {falling intonation} Iro ga chotto... [Let me see... The color is a bit...]
When declining politely, "uun... {falling intonation}", "sou desu ne {falling intonation", and "demo {falling intonation}" can all be used:
Attendant: Totemo yoku niai desu yo. [It suits you very well.]
Customer: Uun... {falling intonation} Demo. {falling intonation} [Hmm... But...]
To end the conversation, "mata ni shimasu" or "mata kimasu kara" can be used. To add a degree of politeness "warui kedo" or "sumimasen kedo" can be used:
Attendant: Sore ja, kochira wa? [Well, how about this one?]
Customer: Ano, sumimasen kedo, mata kimasu kara. [Um, I'm sorry, but I'll come again.]
Attendant: Sou desu ka. Doumo arigato gozaimasu. [I see. Thank you very much. {formal}]
Attendant: Ja, kochira nado ikaga desu ka? [Well, how do you like this one?]
Customer: Uun. {falling intonation} Warui kedo, mata ni suru yo. [Hmm... Sorry, but, another time. {masculine}]
Customer: Sumimasen kedo, mata ni suru wa. [Sorry, but, another time. {feminine}]

-tara (When/If) Form of Verbs
-----------------------------
The form "{sentence 1} + tara, {sentence 2}" implies that when the condition in the first sentence has occured, the condition in the second sentence will also be realized:
A: Gohan o tabetara, dekakemashou. [When we've eaten our meal, let's go out.]
A: Atsukattara, mado o akete mo ii desu yo. [If you're hot, you may open the window.]
A: Wakaranakattara, jisho o mite kudasai. [If/when you don't understand, please look in the dictionary.]
The sentences are joined with a verb or adjective in its "-tara" form. To obtain the "-tara" form, add "-ra" to the plain past form:
plain plain past -tara form
Verbs
positive wakaru wakatta wakattara
negative wakaranai wakaranakatta wakaranakattara
Adjectives
positive takai takakatta takakattara
negative takaku nai takaku nakatta takaku nakattara
"na" Adjectives
positive genki da genki datta genki dattara
negative genki ja nai genki ja nakatta genki ja nakattara
Nouns
positive ame da ame datta ame dattara
negative ame ja nai ame ja nakatta ame ja nakattara
When the second sentence uses the past tense, the implication is that it came as a surprise or realization:
A: Yamada-san ni kiitara, wakarimashita. [After asking Yamada-san, I understood.]
A: Depaato de kaimono shiteitara, Tanaka-san ni aimashita. [When I was shopping at the department store, I met Tanaka-san.]
A: Shukusha ni kaettara, kuni kara tegami ga kiteimashita. [When I returned to the dormitory, a letter from home had come.]
The "-tara" form can be used to ask for advice:
A: Ashita nanji ni kitara ii desu ka? [What time shall I come tomorrow?]
A: Shougakukin no koto wa doko de kiitara ii deshou ka? [Where should I ask about scholarships?]
A: Gaikokujin tourokushou o naku shitan desu ga, doushitara ii deshou ka? [I lost my alien registration card. What shall I do?]

"omou" Think
------------
You can express your thoughts or ask about the thoughts of others with the form "{sentence} to omou":
A: Kanji wa omoshiroi to omoimasu. [I think Kanji are interesting.]
A: Kyou wa ginkou wa yasumi da to omoimasu ka? [Do you think the bank is closed today?]
To express something you are thinking about at the moment, use the form "{sentence} to omotteiru":
A: Atarashii kuruma o kaitai to omotteimasu. [I am thinking about buying a new car.]
A: Hokkaidou ni ikitai to omotteimasu. [I'm thinking about going to Hokkaido.]
Note that only plain forms are used before "to omou".
The particle "to" indicates that the preceding words are a quotation (the speaker is "quoting" the thought).

"suru" Verbs Vs. "naru" Verbs
-----------------------------
Japanese verbs can be classified into "suru" and "naru" types depending on whether the subject controls the action or not. "Suru" verbs express intentional action, controlled by the subject of the sentence. "Naru" verbs focus on the result of an action or occurrence and cannot be controlled by the subject of the sentence. For example, compare these sentences:
A: Watashi wa doa o akeru. [I open the door.]
A: Doa ga aku. [The door opens.]
Note that in the first sentence, the subject ("watashi") directly controls the action ("akeru"). In the second sentence, the subject ("doa") has no direct control over the action ("aku").
Many "suru" verbs take the structure "{subject} ga {object} o {verb}":
A: Aniru-san doa o akeru. [Anil-san opens the door.]
"Naru" verbs take the structure "{subject} ga {verb}":
A: Doa ga akeru. [The door opens.]
Many verbs have corresponding "suru" and "naru" forms:
"suru" form "naru" form
akeru [to open something] aku [to be opened]
shimeru [to close something] shimaru [to be closed]
tomeru [to stop something] tomaru [to stop]
kimeru [to decide] kimaru [to be decided]
tsukeru [to turn something on] tsuku [to come on]
kesu [to turn something off] kieru [to go out]
hajimeru [to begin something] hajimaru [to begin]
naosu [to fix] naoru [to be fixed]
mitsukeru [to find] mitsukaru [to be found]
ireru [to put in] hairu [to enter]
dasu [to take out] deru [to come out]
kaeru [to change something] kawaru [to change]
otosu [to drop something] ochiru [to fall]
kowasu [to break something] kowareru [to be broken]
todokeru [to deliver] todoku [to be delivered]
A: Doa o shimete mo ii desu ka? [May I close the door?]
A: Doa ga shimarimasu. [The door will close.]
A: Kuruma o tomete kudasai. [Stop the car, please.]
A: Asoko ni kuruma ga tomatteimasu. [A car is parked over there.]
A: Hayaku keikaku o kimete kudasai. [Decide the plan quickly.]
A: Keikaku wa kimarimashita ka? [Has the plan been decided?]
A: Saa, jugyou o hajime mashou. [Well, let's begin the class.]
A: Jugyou wa kyu-ji ni hajimarimasu. [The class begins at nine.]

Indicating an Extent
--------------------
A quantity, duration, or amount of money followed by "de" indicates an extent:
A: Mikka de repooto o kakimashita. [I wrote a report in three days.]
A: Hon wa 2 shuukan de hairimasu. [The book will come in in two weeks.]
A: Kono shatsu o sen-en de kaimashita. [I bought this shirt for 1000 yen.]
A: Sono ringo wa mittsu de gohyaku-en desu. [Those apples are 3 for 500 yen.]

Duration/Cost
-------------
"Kakaru" [it takes/it costs] takes the structure "{time/money} ga {counter} kakaru":
A: (jikan ga) Mikka kakaru. [It takes 3 days.]
A: (okane ga) Sen-en kakaru. [It costs 1000 yen.]
To ask about duration or cost, use "dono kurai/gurai" [how much]:
A: Tokyou kara Hokkaidou ma de hikouki de dono kurai kakarimasu ka? [How long does it take from Tokyo to Hokkaido by plane?]
B: Ichi jikan gurai kakarimasu. [It takes about one hour.]
A: Okane wa dono gurai kakarimasu ka? [How much does it cost?]
B: Ichiman gosen-en gurai da to omoimasu. [I think it costs about 1,5000 yen.]
"Kurai/gurai" attached after the quantity indicates that it is approximate.

Indicating Frequency
--------------------
To indicate the number of times something occurs within a time period, use the form "{period} ni {number of times}":
phrase meaning
ichinichi ni san-do three times a day
hi ni san-do three times a day
isshuukan ni futsu-ka two days a week
shuu ni futsu-ka two days a week
ikkagetsu ni ikkai once a month
tsuki ni ikkai once a month
ichinen ni ichi, ni-do once or twice a year
ichinen ni ni, san-do two or three times a year
nen ni ni, san-do two or three times a year
A: Kono kusuri wa ichinichi ni san-kai nonde kudasai. [Take this medicine three times a day.]
A: Isshuukan ni ikkai sentaku shimasu. [I do the wash once a week.]
A: Shuu ni mikka gakkou ni ikimasu. [I go to school three times a week.]

Requesting Assistance
---------------------
In a shop, you can explain your situation and explicitly ask for help with "{sentence} kara/node {verb-te} kudasai":
A: Nihon no Kaisha Keiei to iu hon ga mitsukara nai node, sagashite kudasai. [I can't find the book called "Japanese Business Management", so please look for it.]
However, it is more polite to use "{sentence} kedo/ga..." because it implies hesitation to ask for something outright:
A: Nihon no Kaisha Keiei to iu hon ga mitsukara nai n desu kedo... [I can't find the book called "Japanese Business Management", but... (can you help me?)]
Avoid making explicit requests to a senior; use implied requests instead.

#4 mollipen

mollipen

    If this is all that life has to offer me, then I can do without.

  • Owner
  • 10,402 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Los Angeles, CA
  • Occupation:Princess in training
  • brown
  • Xbox Live: pikoeri

Posted 12 June 2003 - 04:08 PM

Spook's posting, part four

"To" Connective Particle (If/When/Whenever)
-------------------------------------------
Similar to "{sentence 1} + tara, {sentence 2}", the form "{sentence 1 (plain non-past)} to, {sentence 2}" implies that sentence 2 is inevitably or habitually realized when sentence 1 is realized:
A: Gojuu meetoru iku to, kamera-ya ga arimasu. [If you go 50 meters, there is a camera shop.]
A: Nigatsu ni naru to, kono hen wa yuki ga furimasu. [In February, it always snows around here.]
Unlike with "-tara", "to" usually cannot be used to express the speaker's intention, request, or suggestion. "-Tara" should be used in such situations:
A: Tanaka-san ga kitara, hajimemashoo. [When Tanaka-san comes, let's start.]

"Hou ga Ii" for Giving Advice
-----------------------------
Attached to the plain past positive or plain non-past negative form of a verb, "hou ga ii" is used to give advice:
A: Kusuri o nonda hou ga ii desu. [You'd better take some medicine.]
A: Kusuri wa nomanai hou ga ii desu. [You'd better not take any medicine.]
Even when "hou ga ii" is attached to a past-tense verb, the advice given pertains to the present or future.
"Hou ga ii" is sometimes attached to the plain non-past positive form of a verb, with the same meaning:
A: Nihongo o hanasu hou ga ii desu yo. [You'd better speak in Japanese.]

"-te Kara" (After)
------------------
"Kara" attached to the "-te" form of a verb means "after doing":
A: Jugyou ga owatte kara, honya ni ikimasu. [After class is over, I'll go to the bookshop.]
A: Sensei ni soudan shite kara, kimeta hou ga ii desu. [You'd better decide after talking it over with your teacher.]
As with other uses of the "-te" form, the final verb determines the sentence's tense:
A: Uchi ni kaette kara, nani o shimasu ka? [What will you do after returning home?]
A: Uchi ni kaette kara, nani o shimashita ka? [What did you do after returning home?]

"Ato" (After)
-------------
"Ato" means "later" or "after". It can be combined with nouns in the form "{noun} no ato de, {sentence}":
A: Jugyou no ato de sakkaa o shimashou. [After class, let's play soccer.]
A: Anil-san wa shigoto no ato de, biiru o nomimasu. [Anil-san drinks beer after work.]
It can also be used with verbs in the form "{verb-ta} ato de, {sentence}":
A: Hiru gohan o tabeta ato de, honya e ikimashita. [After I ate lunch, I went to the bookshop.]
Again, the final verb determines the sentence's tense:
A: Konban benkyou shita ato de, nani o shimasu ka? [After you study this evening, what will you do?]
A: Yuu benkyou shita ato de, nani o shimashita ka? [After you studied last night, what did you do?]

"Mae" (Before)
--------------
"Mae" means "before". It can be combined with nouns in the form "{noun} no mae ni, {sentence}":
A: Kono kusuri wa shokuji no mae ni nonde kudasai. [Take this medicine before meals.]
A: Anil-san wa shigoto no mae ni jogingu o shimasu. [Anil-san goes jogging before work.]
It can also be used with verbs in the form "{verb-ru} mae ni, {sentence}":
A: Maiban, neru mae ni tegami o kakimasu. [Every night, before I go to bed, I write a letter.]
A: Nihon e kuru mae ni, Nihongo o benkyou shimashita ka? [Did you study Japanese before you came to Japan?]
Again, the final verb determines the sentence's tense:
A: Neru mae ni, tegami o kakimasu. [I'll write a letter before I go to sleep.]
A: Neru mae ni, tegami o kakimashita. [I wrote a letter before I went to sleep.]

Use of "wa" and "ga" with Compound Sentences
--------------------------------------------
These rules apply to the "to", "-te kara", "ato de", and "mae ni" forms, among others:
When sentence 1 and sentence 2 have different subjects, the subject of sentence 1 (a subordinate clause) is always marked by the "ga" particle. The subject of sentence 2, however, can be marked by either "ga" or "wa":
A: Risa-san ga oobaa o megu to, Anil-san wa hangaa ni kakemasu. [When Lisa-san takes off her coat, Anil-san puts it on a hanger.]
A: Risa-san ga kenkyuushitsu ni iku mae ni, Tanaka-san wa denwa o shimashita. [Before Lisa-san went to the conference room, Tanaka-san phoned.]
The subject of sentence 2 can precede sentence 1 as a topic, in which case it is marked by "wa" only:
A: Anil-san wa, Risa-san ga oobaa o megu to, hangaa ni kakemasu. [As for Anil-san, when Lisa-san takes off her coat, he puts it on a hanger.]
A: Anil-san wa, Risa-san ga kaetta ato de, tegami o kakimasu. [As for Anil-san, after Lisa-san has returned home, he'll write a letter.]
A: Tanaka-san wa Risa-san ga kenkyuushitsu ni iku mae ni, denwa o shimashita. [Tanaka-san phoned before Lisa-san went to the seminar room.]
When the subject of sentence 1 and sentence 2 is the same, it is mentioned only in sentence 1, marked by "wa":
A: Anil-san wa, oobaa o megu to, hangaa ni kakemasu. [When Anil-san takes off his coat, he puts it on a hanger.]
A: Anil-san wa uchi e kaette kara, tegami o kakimasu. [When Anil-san has returned home, he'll write a letter.]
A: Tanaka-san wa kenkyuushitsu ni iku mae ni, denwa o shimashita. [Tanaka-san phoned before she went to the seminar room.]

"Wa" Discourse Particle (At Least)
----------------------------------
When added to an expression of quantity or duration, the discourse particle "wa" means "at least":
A: Mainichi ni jikan benkyou shite kudasai. [Please study 2 hours a day.]
A: Mainichi ni jikan wa benkyou shite kudasai. [Please study at least 2 hours a day.]
A: Eki kara dono gurai kakarimasu ka? [How long does it take from the station?]
B: Nijuppun wa kakaru to omoimasu. [I think it takes at least 20 minutes.]
A: Isshukan ni ichido wa kazoku ni tegami o kakimasu. [I write a letter to my family at least once a week.]

Ordinal Numbers
---------------
Add "-me" to a number to indicate position within a series:
number meaning ordinal meaning
hitori one person hitorime the first person
futari two people futarime the second person
hitotsu one thing hitotsume the first thing
futatsu two things futatsume the second thing
nikagetsu two months nikagetsume the second month
ichinen one year ichinenme the first year
A: Hidari kara sanninme ga Tanaka-san desu. [The third person from the left is Tanaka-san.]
A: Futatsume no kado o migi ni magatte kudasai. [Turn right at the second corner.]
A: Nihon ni kite, mada isshukanme desu. [This is still the first week since I came to Japan.]
"-me" can also be combined with "ichiban", "niban" ("number one", "number two"), etc.:
A: Hidari kara sanbanme no hito ga Tanaka-san desu. [The third person from the left is Tanaka-san.]
A: Nibanme no kado o migi ni magatte kudasai. [Turn right at the second corner.]

Summary of "-te" Forms
----------------------
"-te kudasai" means "please":
A: Chotto matte kudasai. [Wait a moment, please.]
A: Ashita kite kudasai. [Please come tomorrow.]
Use the "-te" form of verbs to make compound sentences:
A: Shokudou ni itte, hirugohan o tabemasu. [I'll go to the cafeteria and eat lunch.]
A: Namae o kaite, hanko o oshite kudasai. [Please write your name and put your seal.]
Use "-te imasu" to show a state of affairs:
A: Okane ga ochite imasu. [There's some money someone dropped.]
A: Doa ga aite imasu. [The door is open.]
"-te inai" indicates that an action hasn't (yet) taken place:
A: Mada shimbun o yonde imasen. [I haven't read the newspaper.]
A: Mada gohan o tabete imasen. [I haven't eaten yet.]
"-te kara" means "after":
A: Jugyou ga owatte kara, honya ni ikimasu. [After class is over, I'll go to the bookshop.]
A: Ie e kaette kara, nani o shimasu ka? [After you return home, what will you do?]
To ask or give permission, use "-te mo ii desu":
A: Koko de tabako o sutte mo ii desu ka? [May I smoke here?]
A: Eigo de kaite mo ii desu. [You may write in English.]
Use the "-te" form of adjectives to make compound sentences:
A: Kono jisho wa furukute, chiisai desu. [This dictionary is old and small.]
A: Chikatetsu wa benri de, yasuku te, hayai desu. [The subway is convenient, cheap, and fast.]
A: Kono resutoran wa amari takakunakute, oishii desu. [This restaurant isn't very expensive, and the food is good.]
Use the "-te" form to make compound sentences with nouns:
A: Kimura-sensei wa kono dagaku no sensei de, watashi no shidoukyoukan desu. [Kimura-sensei is a teacher at this university, and my academic adviser.]
A: Suzuki-san wa gakusei de, dokushin desu. [Suzuki-san is a student and single.]

Summary of "ga" Particle
------------------------
Use "ga" to mark the subject of a sentence:
A: Dare ga ikimasu ka? [Who will go?]
A: Tanaka-san ga imasu. [There's Tanaka-san.]
A: Watashi no kuni no hou ga ookii desu. [My country is bigger.]
A: Tori no koe ga kikoemasu. [The birds' song can be heard.]
A: Biiru ga nomitai desu. [I want to drink beer.]
As a connective particle, "ga" means "but":
Nihongo wa muzukashii desu ga, omoshiroi desu. [Japanese is difficult but interesting.]

Summary of "o" Particle
-----------------------
Use "o" to mark the object of a sentence:
A: Kitte o kaimasu. [I buy stamps.]
A: Basu wa daigaku no mae o toorimasu. [The bus passes in front of the university.]

Summary of "ni" Particle
------------------------
Use "ni" to mark a goal:
A: Ashita Toukyou ni ikimasu. [I'll go to Tokyo tomorrow.]
A: Tomodachi ni tegami o dashimasu. [I'll mail a letter to my friend.]
A: Basu ni norimasu. [I'll get on the bus.]
A: Heya ni hairimasu. [I'll enter the room.]
A: Koko ni namae o kaite kudasai. [Please write your name here.]
A: Kinou eki de tomodachi ni aimashita. [I met my friend at the station yesterday.]
Use "ni" to mark a source:
A: Tomodachi ni purezento o moraimashita. [I received a present from my friend.]
Use "ni" to mark a location:
A: Kyoushitsu ni denwa ga arimasu. [There's a telephone in the classroom.]
Use "ni" to mark a time:
A: Maiban juuichiji ni nemasu. [I go to bed at 11 o'clock every night.]
Use "ni" with kikoeru and mieru:
A: Umi ga miemasu ka? [Can you see the sea?]
B: Watashi ni wa miemasen ga. [No, I can't see it.]
Use "ni" to indicate frequency per unit:
A: Shuu ni ichikai heya o souji shimasu. [I clean the room once a week.]

Summary of "de" Particle
------------------------
Use "de" to mark the place an action occurs:
A: Toshokan de hon o yomimasu. [I read books in the library.]
A: Daigaku no mae de aimashou. [Let's meet in front of the university.]
A: Shinjuku de chikatetsu ni notte kudasai. [Board the subway at Shinjuku.]
Use "de" to mark the means by which an action occurs:
A: Hashi de tabemasu. [I eat with chopsticks.]
A: Kuruma de kaerimashou. [Let's return by car.]
A: Koukubin de ikura desu ka? [How much is it by airmail?]
A: Nihongo de hanashite kudasai. [Please speak in Japanese.]
Use "de" to indicate extent:
A: Kore wa zenbu de ikura desu ka? [How much are these in all?]
A: Hitori de ikimasu. [I'll go alone.]
A: Mikka de repooto o kakimashita. [I wrote the report in 3 days.]
A: Ropezu-san kurasu de ichiben se ga takai desu. [Lopez-san is the tallest in the class.]

Summary of "e" Particle
-----------------------
Use "e" to mark direction:
A: Sengetsu Nihon e kimashita. [I came to Japan last month.]

Summary of "to" Particle
------------------------
Use "to" like "and" to list nouns:
A: Tanaka-san to Yamashita-san wa tomodachi desu. [Tanaka-san and Yamashita-san are friends.]
Use "to" to indicate companions:
A: Tanaka-san wa Yamashita-san to eiga o mimashita. [Tanaka-san saw a movie with Yamashita-san.]
Use "to" to indicate a quotation:
A: Tanaka-san wa ashita Toukyou ni iku to itteimasu. [Tanaka-san says she'll go to Tokyo tomorrow.]
A: Kanji wa omoshiroi to omoimasu.
Use "{sentence 1} to {sentence 2}" to mean "if/when {sentence 1}, {sentence 2}":
A: Mou sukoshi iku to, honya ga arimasu. [If you go a little farther, there's a bookshop.]

#5 mollipen

mollipen

    If this is all that life has to offer me, then I can do without.

  • Owner
  • 10,402 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Los Angeles, CA
  • Occupation:Princess in training
  • brown
  • Xbox Live: pikoeri

Posted 12 June 2003 - 04:12 PM

Spook's posting, part five

Summary of "kara" Particle
--------------------------
Use "kara" to indicate a source, starting time, or starting point:
A: Tomodachi kara purezento o moraimashita. [I received a present from my friend.]
A: Watashi wa Indo kara kimashita. [I came from India.]
A: Kuji kara hajimemashou. [Let's start at 9 o'clock.]
A: Hiroshima kara Toukyou made nanjikan kakarimasu ka? [How many hours does it take from Hiroshima to Tokyo?]
Use "{sentence 1} kara {sentence 2}" to mean "{sentence 2} because {sentence 1}":
A: Kuraku narimashita kara, kaerimashou. [It's become dark, so let's go home.]
Use "{sentence 1} kara {sentence 2}" to mean "{sentence 2} after {sentence 1}":
A: Jugyou ga owatte kara, honya ni ikimasu. [I'll go to the bookshop after class is over.]

Summary of "made" Particle
--------------------------
Use "made" to indicate an ending point or time:
A: Oosaka made kuruma de ikimashita. [I went to Osaka by car.]
A: Kinou no ban wa juuniji made benkyou shimashita. [I studied until 12 o'clock last night.]

Modifying Nouns with Verbs
--------------------------
A plain-form clause can be placed immediately before a noun to modify it:
A: Kochira wa, kinou o hanashi shita Risa-san desu. [This is Lisa-san, whom I talked about yesterday.]
The verb ending the clause can be in past or non-past, positive or negative:
phrase meaning
hon o kau hito a person who will buy a book
hon o kawanai hito a person who doesn't buy a book
hon o katta hito a person who bought a book
hon o kawanakatta hito a person who didn't buy a book
hon o kateiru hito a person who is buying a book
Nouns can be modified in a variety of other ways:
phrase meaning
kinou Tanaka-san ga depaato de katta hon a book which Tanaka-san bought at the department store yesterday
kinou Tanaka-san ga hon o katta depaato the department store where Tanaka-san bought a book yesterday
kinou depaato de hon o katta Tanaka-san Tanaka-san, who bought a book at the department store yesterday
The modifying clause/noun pair can be used anywhere a noun alone can. The pair can be used as a subject:
A: *Kinou hon o katta hito* wa dare desu ka? [Who was that person who bought a book yesterday?]
A: *Senshuu katta hon* wa omoshiroi desu. [That book I bought last week was interesting.]
The pair can be used as an object:
A: *Asoko de hon o katteiru hito* o shitteimasu ka? [Do you know that person who is buying a book over there?]
A: Watashi wa *senshuu katta hon* o Risa-san ni agemashita. [I gave Lisa-san the book which I bought last week.]
The pair can be used as a predicate:
A: Kore wa, *Nichiyoubi ni katta hon* desu. [This is the book which I bought on Sunday.]
Other verb forms can be used as modifiers:
A: *Watashi ga kaitai hon* wa kore desu. [The book which I want to buy is this one.]
A: *Denki ga tsuiteiru heya* wa Aniru-san no heya desu. [The room with the light on is Anil-san's room.]
A: *Mada naratteinai kanji* ga takusan arimasu. [There are still a lot of Kanji which I haven't learned yet.]
The subject of a modifying clause is marked with "ga", not "wa":
A: *Kinou Tanaka-san ga depaato de katta hon* o misete kudasai. [Please show me the book which Tanaka-san bought at the department store yesterday.]
In short modifying clauses, "no" sometimes replaces "ga" as a subject marker:
A: *Tanaka-san no tsukutta ryouri* wa oishikatta. [The food which Tanaka-san cooked was delicious.]
A: Aniru-san wa *se no takai hito* desu. [Anil-san is a tall person.]

"-te iru" Progressive Action
----------------------------
The form "{verb -te} iru" expresses action that still continues at present:
A: Aniru-san wa ima tegami o kaite imasu. [Anil-san is writing a letter.]
The form "{verb -te} ita" expresses action which continued for a period of time in the past:
A: Kodomo no toki, Indo ni sunde imashita. [I lived in India when I was a child.]
A: Kinou no gogo goji kara nanaji made kuroi kuruma ga tomatte imashita. [Yesterday afternoon from 5 till 7, a black car was parked here.]
In informal speech, "{verb -te} iru" and "{verb -te} imasu" are often contracted as "{verb -te} ru" and "{verb -te} masu":
A: Nani o shite ru n desu ka? [What are you doing?]
B: Kuni no tomodachi ni tegami o kaite masu. [I'm writing a letter to a friend back home.]
A: Tanaka-san ga sou itte mashita. [Tanaka-san was saying so.]

"Bakari" (Just)
---------------
The form "{verb -ta} bakari da" indicates that "{verb -ta}" took place only recently:
A: Suzuki-san wa terebi o katta bakari desu. [Suzuki-san just bought a TV.]
A: Sengetsu Nihon ni kita bakari desu. [I came to Japan just last month.]
The form "{verb -ta} bakari na node/bakari de" indicates that a situation occurred because "{verb -ta}" took place only recently:
A: Nihon e kita bakari na node, Nihongo ga yoku wakarimasen. [I've only just come to Japan, so I don't understand Japanese well.]
A: Nihongo no benkyou o hajimeta bakari de, mada yoku wakarimasen. [I've only just started to study Japanese, and don't understand it well yet.]

"{Quantity} mo" (As Many As)
----------------------------
Add the discourse particle "mo" after a quantity or duration to stress that it is an undue amount:
A: Kinou wa juujikan benkyou shimashita. [Yesterday I studied for 10 hours.]
A: Kinou wa juujikan mo benkyou shimashita. [Yesterday I studied for as many as 10 hours!]
A: Aniru-san wa aisu kuriimu o san-tsu tabemashita. [Anil-san ate 3 ice creams.]
A: Aniru-san wa aisu kuriimu o san-tsu mo tabemashita. [Anil-san ate as many as 3 ice creams!]
A: Tanaka-san no apaato ni wa terebi ga san-dai arimasu. [There are 3 TVs in Tanaka-san's apartment.]
A: Tanaka-san no apaato ni wa terebi ga san-dai mo arimasu. [There are as many as 3 TVs in Tanaka-san's apartment!]

Confirming What You Heard from Someone
--------------------------------------
To confirm a rumor in a casual situation, use "n datte {rising intonation}":
A: Risaikuru no yasui mise sagashite ru n datte? {rising intonation} [I heard you are looking for a cheap used goods shop? {casual}]
A: Tanaka-san, raigetsu kekon suru n desutte? {rising intonation} [Tanaka-san, I heard you are getting married next week?]
With a senior, use "to kikimashita ga":
A: Sensei, raishuu kanji no shiken ga aru to kikimashita ga. [Sensei, I heard that we'll have a Kanji test next week...]

Potential Verbs
---------------
Potential verbs are used to express what is possible:
A: Watashi wa Nihongo ga hanasemasu. [I can speak Japanese.]
A: Kono mizu wa nomemasen yo. [This water isn't drinkable.]
To get the potential form of a verb, add "-eru" to Group I ("-u") verbs, add "-rareru" to Group II ("-ru") verbs, and change the Group III verbs ("kuru" and "suru") to "korareru" and "dekiru":
plain non-past positive non-past negative past positive past negative
potential potential potential potential
Group I
kaku kakeru kakenai kaketa kakenakatta
hanasu hanaseru hanasenai hanaseta hanasenakatta
motsu moteru motenai moteta motenakatta
Group II
taberu taberareru taberarenai taberareta taberarenakatta
miru mirareru mirarenai mirareta mirarenakatta
Group III
kuru korareru korarenai korareta korarenakatta
suru dekiru dekinai dekita dekinakatta
Potential verbs take the structure "{subject} ga/ni {object} ga {potential verb}":
A: Toshokan de hon ga kariraremasu. [You can borrow books at the library.]
A: Nihonjin no namae ga oboeraremasen. [I can't remember Japanese names.]
For contrast or emphasis, "ni wa" is sometimes used:
A: Nihongo de supiichi shite kudasai. [Please give a speech in Japanese.]
B: Iya, watashi ni wa dekimasen. [Goodness. No, I can't.]
Note that the object is marked by "ga", not "o":
A: Watashi wa Nihongo o hanasu. [I speak Japanese.]
A: Watashi wa Nihongo ga hanaseru. [I can speak Japanese.]
These substitutions are sometimes heard in spoken Japanese:
Group I
ikeru > ikareru
Group II
mirareru > mireru
taberareru > tabereru
Group III
korareru > koreru
Only "suru" verbs have potential forms; "naru" verbs such as "aru", "aku", and "kimaru" do not.

"Ageru" and "Kudasaru" (Giving)
-------------------------------
Several different verbs are used for the concept of giving, depending on the circumstances.
When the receiver is 'outgroup' (any party other than the speaker and his relations, such as family or co-workers), use "ageru". "Ageru" takes the structure "{giver} ga {receiver} ni {object} o ageru":
A: Suzuki-san ga Risa-san ni terebi o ageru. [Suzuki-san gives Lisa-san a TV.]
A: Watashi ga Aniru-san ni teepu o ageru. [I give Anil-san a tape.]
When the receiver is the giver's senior, "sashiageru" is used instead:
A: Watashi wa Sensei ni hon o sashiagemashita. [I gave my teacher a book.]
"Sashiageru" should not be used for giving to family members. Use "ageru" instead:
A: Watashi wa chichi ni tokei o agemashita. [I gave father a watch.]
When giving to younger brothers or sisters and watering or feeding plants or animals, use "yaru":
A: Watashi wa otouto ni omocha o yaru. [I give my younger brother a toy.]
A: Watashi wa Rekusu ni mizu o yatta. [I gave Rex some water.]
When the receiver is 'ingroup' (the speaker or his relations, such as family or co-workers) and the giver is outgroup or a member of the speaker's family, use "kureru":
A: Suzuki-san ga watashi ni terebi o kureru. [Suzuki-san gives me a TV.]
A: Aniru-san ga otouto ni hon o kureru. [Anil-san gives my younger brother a book.]
A: Chichi ga watashi ni okane o kuremashita. [Father gave me money.]
A: Otouto ga watashi ni CD o kuremasu. [My younger brother will give me a CD.]
With "kureru", the recipient is assumed to be the speaker, so "watashi ni" is often omitted:
A: Tanaka-san ga tegami o kuremashita. [Tanaka-san gave me a letter.]
When the giver is the recipient's senior (and not a member of his family), use "kudasaru". "Kudasaru" is an irregular verb conjugated as "kudasaru", "kudasaranai", "kudasaimasu", "kudasatte", "kudasaranakatta":
A: Sensei wa tegami o kudasaimashita. [My teacher gave me a letter.]
A: Sensei ga otouto ni hon o kudasaimashita. [My teacher gave my younger brother a book.]

"Morau" (Receiving)
-------------------
Unlike with giving, there is no distinction between 'ingroup' and 'outgroup' with verbs used for the concept of receiving. There are, however, still separate verbs used according to the social status of giver and receiver.
"Morau" (to receive) takes the structure "{receiver} ga {giver} ni/kara {object} o morau":
A: Risa-san ga Suzuki-san ni terebi o morau. [Lisa-san receives a TV from Suzuki-san.]
A: Watashi ga Aniru-san kara hon o morau. [I receive a book from Anil-san.]
When the giver is the receiver's senior, use "itadaku" instead:
A: Watashi wa Sensei ni tegami o itadakimashita. [I received a letter from my teacher.]
"Itadaku" should not be used for receiving from family members. Use "morau" instead:
A: Watashi wa chichi ni okane o moraimashita. [I received money from father.]

"-te Ageru" and "-te Morau" (Giving and Receiving Favors)
---------------------------------------------------------
Actions can be 'given' and 'received' just like things. When verbs of giving and receiving are attached to the "-te" form of a verb, the implication is that the action is being taken for someone else's benefit:
A: Suzuki-san ga Risa-san ni Kanji o oshiete agemashita. [Suzuki-san taught Lisa-san Kanji.]
A: Suzuki-san ga Kanji o oshiete kuremashita. [Suzuki-san taught me Kanji.]
A: Watashi wa Suzuki-san no shigoto o tetsudatte agemashita. [I helped Suzuki-san with his work.]
A: Watashi wa otouto no heya o souji shite yarimashita. [I cleaned my brother's room for him.]
With "-te morau", especially with future actions, often the implication is that the receiver has asked the giver to perform the favor:
A: Risa-san wa Suzuki-san ni Nihongo o oshiete moraimasu. [Lisa-san has Suzuki-san teach her Japanese.]
A: Tegami wa Nihonjin no tomodachi ni kaite moraimasu. [I'll get a Japanese friend to write a letter for me.]
A: Chichi ni Ranborugiini o katte moraimasu. [I'll get father to buy me a Lamborghini.]

Going/Coming for a Purpose
--------------------------
To express a purpose for going or coming, use the structure "{subject} ga {place} e/ni {purpose} ni {verb}":
A: Watashi ga toushokan e hon o yomi ni ikimasu. [I'll go to the library to read books.]
A: Toukyou e kaimono ni iku. [I go to Tokyo to shop.]
The purpose can be a verb base:
A: Nihon ni keizai o benkyou shi ni kimashita. [I came to Japan to study economics.]
The purpose can also be a verbal noun that expresses an activity ("kaimono", "benkyou", "sukii"):
A: Nihon ni keizai o benkyou ni kimashita. [I came to Japan for the study of economics.]

"Made ni" (Finishing by a Given Time)
-------------------------------------
The form "{time} made ni" indicates the action is completed no later than the time given:
A: Go-ji made ni kite kudasai. [Come by 5 o'clock.]
A: Hachi-ji han made ni ikimasu. [I'll be there by 8:30.]
A: Ashita made ni oboemasu. [I'll memorize it by tomorrow.]
On the other hand, "{time} made" indicates the action continues until the time given:
A: Go-ji made benkyou shimasu. [I'll study until 5.]

"-te Miru" (Try and See)
------------------------
The form "{verb -te} miru" means "to do something and see how it goes":
A: Chotto tabete mite kudasai. [Please have a taste.]
A: Kono kooto o kite mite mo ii desu ka? [Can I try this coat on?]

"-te Oku" (Doing Something for a Future Purpose)
------------------------------------------------
The form "{verb -te} oku" expresses that the subject is doing something for a future purpose:
A: Gaarufurendo ga kuru node, heya o souji shite okimasu. [Since my girlfriend is coming, I'm cleaning my room (so she won't think I'm a slob).]
A: Juusu o reizouko ni irete okimashita. [I put some juice in the refrigerator (so that it will be cold later).]
It can also show that the action is on a temporary basis:
A: Are, saifu o wasureta. [Oh, I forgot to bring my wallet.]
B: Ja, watashi ga horatte okimasu. [In that case, I'll pay (for the moment).]
In the above sentence, "okimasu" implies that B expects A to repay him later. Contrast this with the below:
A: Are, saifu o wasureta. [Oh, I forgot to bring my wallet.]
B: Ja, watashi ga horaimasu. [In that case, I'll pay.]
With "naru" verbs, "{verb -te} oku" expresses the idea of leaving a state alone for a future purpose:
A: Mado o shimemashou ka? [Shall I close the window?]
B: Iya, sono mama akete oite kudasai. [No, please leave it open (so the room will cool down).]
In casual speech, "-te oku" is often shortened to "-toku":
A: Reizouko ni iretoku. [I'll put it in the fridge.]

#6 mollipen

mollipen

    If this is all that life has to offer me, then I can do without.

  • Owner
  • 10,402 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Los Angeles, CA
  • Occupation:Princess in training
  • brown
  • Xbox Live: pikoeri

Posted 12 June 2003 - 04:16 PM

Spook's posting, part six

"-te Aru" (A State Resulting from Someone's Action)
---------------------------------------------------
To express a state resulting from someone's action, use the form "{transitive verb -te} aru":
A: Juusu ga reizouko ni irete arimasu. [Juice has been put in the fridge.]
A: Koko ni juusho ga kaite arimasu. [The address is written here.]
Unlike "{intransitive verb -te} iru", which merely expresses a state of affairs, "{transitive verb -te} aru" implies that someone is responsible for that state:
A: Doa ga aite iru. [The door is open.]
A: Doa ga akete aru. [The door has been opened.]
Don't confuse "{verb -te} oku" with "{transitive verb -te} aru":
A: Juusu o reizouko ni irete oku. [I'll put the juice in the fridge.]
A: Juusu ga reizouko ni irete aru. [Someone put juice in the fridge!]
Only transitive verbs (verbs that take an object) should be used with "-te aru". For intransitive verbs (verbs that do not take an object), use "-te iru" instead:
A: A, okane ga ochite iru. [Oh, here's some money that was dropped!]

Imperatives
-----------
Imperatives are blunt expressions used to give commands:
A: Tomare. [Stop!]
A: Nondara, unten suru na. [When you drink, don't drive!]
To get the positive imperative form of a verb, change the "-u" to "-e" for Group I verbs, change the "-ru" to "-ro" for group II verbs, and change the Group III verbs ("kuru" and "suru") to "koi" and "shiro". To get the imperative negative form, simply add "na" to the plain form:
plain positive negative
imperative imperative
Group I
tomaru tomare tomaru na
susumu susume susumu na
tatsu tate tatsu na
Group II
suteru sutero suteru na
miseru misero miseru na
taberu tabero taberu na
Group III
suru shiro suru na
kuru koi kuru na
Imperatives can be quoted even in formal speech:
A: Oishasan wa tabako o suu na to iimashita. [The doctor told me not to smoke!]
Seniors often use this form with their juniors (fathers with their children, etc.), especially with "yo" attached to soften the bluntness:
A: Ike yo. [Get going!]
A: Benkyou shiro. [Study!]
For positive commands, the form "{verb base} nasai" can be used. This form is often seen on exam papers and is used by mothers telling their children what to do:
A: Ikenasai. [Get going!]
A: Benkyou shinasai. [Study!]
Men will often use imperatives in casual speech. Women, however, rarely use them.

"{Question Word} ka" (Some-)
--------------------------------
The combination "{question word} ka" means "some-" in positive sentences and "any-" in questions:
A: Tanaka-san wa nooto ni nani ka (o) kakimashita. [Tanaka-san wrote something in her notebook.]
A: Dare ka (ga) doa o nooku shite imasu. [Someone is knocking on the door.]
In spoken Japanese, the particles "ga" and "o" are generally omitted after "{question word} ka".:
A: Tanaka-san wa nooto ni nani ka kakimashita. [Tanaka-san wrote something in her notebook.]
A: Dare ka doa o nooku shite imasu. [Someone is knocking on the door.]
The particles "ni" and "e" can also be omitted if the meaning is clear without them:
A: Ashita wa doko ka ikimasu ka? [Are you going anywhere tomorrow?]
The other structure particles ("de", "kara", "made", and "to") are always required:
A: Doko ka de yasumimashou. [Let's rest somewhere.]
Here are the "{question word} ka" combinations:
question word meaning with "ka" meaning
nani what? nani ka something/anything
dare who? dare ka someone/anyone
doko where? doko ka somewhere/anywhere
itsu when? itsu ka sometime/at any time
dore which? dore ka one of them
dochira which?, where? dochira ka one of the two, somewhere/anywhere
"{Question word} ka" can be used directly before a noun to modify it:
A: Nani ka eiga o mimashita ka? [Have you seen any movies?]

"{Question Word} mo" (No-)
----------------------------
The combination "{question word} mo" is similar to "{question word} ka", but means "no-" and is usually used in negative sentences:
A: Nani mo tabetaku arimasen. [I don't want to eat anything.]
A: Dare mo kimasen deshita. [No one came.]
A: Ashita wa doko mo ikimasen. [I'm not going anywhere tomorrow.]
A: Saikin, nani ka eiga o mimashita ka? [Have you seen any movies lately?]
B: Iie, nani mo mite imasen. [No, I haven't seen anything.]
A: Natsu yasumi wa doko ka umi e ikimashita ka? [Did you go to any beach resorts during summer vacation?]
B: Iie, doko e mo ikimasen deshita. [No, I didn't go anywhere.]
Here are the "{question word} mo" combinations:
question word meaning with "mo" meaning
nani what? nani mo nothing
dare who? dare mo no one
doko where? doko mo nowhere
dore which? dore mo nothing
dochira which? dochira mo neither

Adverbs of Frequency
--------------------
There are a variety of adverbs to indicate how often an action takes place:
itsumo suru always do something
yoku suru often do something
tokidoki suru sometimes do something
tamani suru do something once in a while
amari shinai infrequently do something
mettani shinai rarely do something
zenzen shinai never do something
A: Eigakan e yoku ikimasu. [I go to the movies often.]
A: Eigakan e amari ikimasen. [I don't go to the movies often.]

"-juu/-chuu" (Throughout, In the Middle Of)
------------------------------------------
Appended to a period of time, "-juu/-chuu" indicates that an action takes place throughout that period:
A: Kinou wa ichinichijuu ame ga futte imashishita. [It rained all day yesterday.]
Appended to a place, "-juu" indicates the whole of that place:
A: Kono daigaku ni wa sekaijuu kara ryuugakusei ga kimasu. [Foreign students from all over the world come to this university.]
Appended to an activity, "-chuu" indicates that activity is in the middle of being conducted:
A: Kono douro wa koujichuu desu. [This road is under construction.]
A: Sono hon wa kashidashichuu desu. [That book is out on loan.]

"-(y)ou" (Proposing Something)
---------------------------
The plain form of "{verb base} mashou" is "{verb -(y)ou}":
A: Kaerimashou ka? [Shall we go back? (formal)]
A: Kaerou ka? [Shall we go back? (casual)]
A: Doa o akemashou ka? [Shall I open the door? (formal)]
A: Doa o akeyou ka? [Shall I open the door? (casual)]
To get the "-(y)ou" form of a verb, change the "-u" to "-ou" for Group I verbs, change the "-ru" to "-you" for Group II verbs, and change the Group III verbs ("suru" and "kuru") to "shiyou" and "koyou":
plain form "-(y)ou" form
Group I
kaku kakou
matsu matou
hanasu hanasou
au aou
Group II
akeru akeyou
neru neyou
miru miyou
iru iyou
Group III
suru shiyou
kuru koyou
To express your own intentions, add "to omou" after the "-(y)ou" form:
A: Konban repooto o kakou to omoimasu. [I think I'll write the report tonight.]
A: Kyuushuu o ryokou shiyou to omotte imasu. [I'm thinking of travelling around Kyushu.]
Don't confuse "{verb -(y)ou} to omou" with "{verb (plain)} to omou", which can only be used to indicate someone else's plans:
A: Toukyo ni iku to omoimasu. [I think he will go to Tokyo.]

"-ta Ri" (Ranges of Activities)
-------------------------------
To indicate a range of activities, use "{verb -ta} ri suru". Add "ri" to the plain past positive form of at least one verb (usually more), and end the series with a form of "suru":
A: Nichiyoubi wa nani o shimasu ka? [What do you do on Sundays?]
B: Tegami o kaita ri, hon o yonda ri shimasu. [I do things like write letters and read.]
A: Mainichi rajio o kiita ri, terebi o mitari shite imasu. [I am doing things like listening to the radio and watching TV.]
A: Tomodachi ni atta ri, kaimono shita ri shiyou to omotte imasu. [I am planning to meet friends and go shopping, etc.]
A: Kinou wa sentaku shitari shite, totemo isogashikatta. [I was very busy yesterday doing chores like the laundry.]

"Shi" (Indicating an Addition)
------------------------------
"Shi" connects two or more similar states, like "what's more" and "and besides" in English:
A: Risa-san wa pooku mo teberu shi, chikin mo tabemasu. [Lisa-san eats both pork and chicken.]
A: Kono kaisha ni wa konpyuuta mo nai shi, wapuro mo nai. [In this company there are no computers nor word processors.]
In the form "{sentence 1 (plain)} shi, {sentence 2}", the first sentence gives a reason for the second:
A: Kyou wa tenki mo ii shi, sentaku o shimashou. [The weather is fine today, so I'll do the washing.]
The second sentence can also be left unsaid, to be inferred from the first:
A: Issho ni dekakemasen ka? [Why don't we go out together?]
B: Ame ga futte iru shi, okane mo nai shi... [It's raining, and besides I have no money...]
Note that, as with other constructs, the first sentence must be in the plain form. The second sentence decides the politeness level for the entire compound sentence:
A: Shukudai mo owatta shi, dekakemashou. [I've finished my homework, so let's go out.]

"No"/"Koto" (Nominalizing a Sentence)
-------------------------------------
In the form "{sentence (plain)} no/koto", the sentence can act as a noun. Compare these sentences:
A: Aniru-san wa Nihongo ga suki desu. [Anil-san likes Japanese.]
A: Aniru-san wa *Nihongo o hanasu no* ga suki desu. [Anil-san likes speaking Japanese.]
In sentences involving seeing or hearing someone doing something, only "no" should be used:
A: Kinou *Tanaka-san ga honya ni hairu no* o mimashita. [Yesterday I saw Tanaka-san going into a bookstore.]
A: Yuube *Suzuki-san ga kirei na onna no hito to aruiteiru no* o mimashita. [I saw Suzuki-san walking with a pretty woman last night.]
A: *Denwa ga natte iru no* ga kikoemasen ka? [Can't you hear the phone ringing?]
In sentences involving "jyouzu da", "heta da", "suki da", "kirai da", or "iya da", "no" is preferred to "koto":
A: Risa-san wa *Nihongo o hanasu no* ga jyouzu desu. [Lisa-san is skilled at speaking Japanese.]
A: Watashi wa *uta o utau no* ga heta desu. [I'm no good at signing.]
A: *Ame no hi ni dekakeru no* wa iya desu. [Going out on a rainy day is awful.]
In sentences of the form "{noun} wa {noun} desu", only "koto" should be used:
A: Watashi no shumi wa *hon o yomu koto* desu. [My hobby is reading books.]
A: Suki na koto wa *tomodachi to hanasu koto* desu. [My favorite pasttime is talking with my friends.]

#7 dunlap

dunlap

    dunlap suru no da!

  • Manager
  • 3,095 posts
  • Gender:Not Telling
  • orange

Posted 10 April 2006 - 09:32 PM

Ho wow, that's a lot of notes.

#8 spook

spook

    I'm Steve Jobs, bitch!

  • Investor
  • 691 posts
  • Location:Mesa, AZ
  • Occupation:Programmer Analyst
  • green
  • Xbox Live: nephariuz

Posted 10 April 2006 - 10:11 PM

Yeah, that's basically a summary of 2/3 of the Situational Functional Japanese series - I was typing in notes as I went. tongue.gif

#9 Mooph

Mooph

    Your *moma

  • Regular
  • 930 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:The Soft Places...
  • Occupation:low level corporate support drone.
  • blue
  • Xbox Live: Mooph

Posted 12 September 2006 - 07:39 AM

They're heeee-eere
Recent Music

#10 atamashasky

atamashasky

    Visitor

  • Banned
  • 2 posts

Posted 26 September 2006 - 04:59 PM

Kinda reminds me of Kerin in that one forum we link to smile.gifbiggrin.gif biggrin.gif lol

Pro-edit: Ninja spam removed. (the smilies were links to sites that can't be good for your computer)

#11 platypus

platypus

    Visitor

  • Banned
  • 2 posts

Posted 29 September 2006 - 09:09 PM

hey guys... sorry but how can set a picture in my profile?

#12 Asagiki

Asagiki

    Bound to tie you you

  • Customer
  • 19 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Michigan, USA
  • Occupation:Student, commissioned artist
  • pink

Posted 08 January 2007 - 08:59 PM

.........*sighs*

and i thought i knew some Japanese.....

*pulles hair*

gah.... I'll never learn this language!

#13 dunlap

dunlap

    dunlap suru no da!

  • Manager
  • 3,095 posts
  • Gender:Not Telling
  • orange

Posted 08 January 2007 - 10:47 PM

I came across a cool resource the other day.

http://ocw.mit.edu/

Resources from past classes at MIT. There's study material for Japanese classes, too.

And my current favorite site:

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/

#14 Procyin

Procyin

    Dancing in the moonlight

  • Regular
  • 3,135 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Toronto
  • grey

Posted 09 January 2007 - 05:37 PM

You in university, Asagiki? Take a class!

Also, Dunlap and I sometimes practice in #gomo at EFNet if you're needing help and encouragement. Also, I like http://nihongoresources.com/index.html ....very nice dictionary and grammar/kanji lessons.

頑張って!
Spoiler

6TvcuCJ.png


#15 Asagiki

Asagiki

    Bound to tie you you

  • Customer
  • 19 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Michigan, USA
  • Occupation:Student, commissioned artist
  • pink

Posted 09 January 2007 - 05:47 PM

QUOTE(Procying @ Jan 9 2007, 06:37 PM) View Post
You in university, Asagiki? Take a class!

頑張って!
Spoiler


Correction....i'm in high school...11th grade.......but... i do have to think a bout colloge now don't I....
gah! it's so DEPRESSING!!!




0 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users